Protecting Your Family from Lead in your Home

The following brochure is required to be provided for any residential lease for a home built prior to 1978.

Consumer Product Safety Commission

Protect Your Family from Lead in Your Home

CPSC Document #426

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 20460

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission Washington, DC 20207


May 1995

Simple Steps To Protect Your Family From Lead Hazards

If you think your home has high levels of lead:

  • Get your young children tested for lead, even if they seem healthy.
  • Wash children’s hands, bottles, pacifiers, and toys often.
  • Make sure children eat healthy, low-fat foods.
  • Get your home checked for lead hazards.
  • Regularly clean floors, window sills, and other surfaces.
  • Wipe soil off shoes before entering house.
  • Talk to your landlord about fixing surfaces with peeling or chipping paint.
  • Take precautions to avoid exposure to lead dust when remodeling or renovating (call 1-800-424-LEAD for guidelines).
  • Don’t use a belt-sander, propane torch, dry scraper, or dry sandpaper on painted surfaces that may contain lead.
  • Don’t try to remove lead-based paint yourself.


Many houses and apartments built before 1978 have paint that contains lead (called lead-based paint). Lead from paint, chips, and dust can pose serious health hazards if not taken care of properly. By 1996, federal law will require that individuals receive certain information before renting, buying, or renovating pre-1978 housing:

LANDLORDS will have to disclose known information on lead-based paint hazards before leases take effect. Leases will include a federal form about lead-based paint.

SELLERS will have to disclose known information on lead-based paint hazards before selling a house. Sales contracts will include a federal form about lead-based paint in the building. Buyers will have up to 10 days to check for lead hazards.

RENOVATORS will have to give you this pamphlet before starting work.

If you want more information on these requirements, call the National Lead Information Clearinghouse at 1-800-424-LEAD.


Lead From Paint, Dust, and Soil Can Be Dangerous If Not Managed Properly.

FACT: Lead exposure can harm young children and babies even before they are born.

FACT: Even children that seem healthy can have high levels of lead in their bodies.

FACT: People can get lead in their bodies by breathing or swallowing lead dust, or by eating soil or paint chips with lead in them.

FACT: People have many options for reducing lead hazards. In most cases, lead-based paint that is in good condition is not a hazard.

FACT: Removing lead-based paint improperly can increase the danger to your family.

If you think your home might have lead hazards, read this pamphlet to learn some simple steps to protect your family.

LEAD GETS IN THE BODY IN MANY WAYS 1 out of every 11 children in the United States has dangerous levels of lead in the bloodstream.

Even children who appear healthy can have dangerous levels of lead.

People can get lead in their body if they:

  • Put their hands or other objects covered with lead dust in their mouths.
  • Eat paint chips or soil that contain lead.
  • Breathe in lead dust (especially during renovations that disturb painted surfaces).

Lead is even more dangerous to children than adults because:

  • Babies and young children often put their hands and other objects in their mouths. These objects can have lead dust on them.
  • Children’s growing bodies absorb more lead.
  • Children’s brains and nervous systems are more sensitive to the damaging effects of lead.

Lead’s Effects

If not detected early, children with high levels of lead in their bodies can suffer from:

  • Damage to the brain and nervous system
  • Behavior and learning problems (such as hyperactivity)
  • Slowed growth
  • Hearing problems
  • Headaches

Lead is also harmful to adults. Adults can suffer from:

  • Difficulties during pregnancy
  • Other reproductive problems (in both men and women)
  • High blood pressure
  • Digestive problems
  • Nerve disorders
  • Memory and concentration problems
  • Muscle and joint pain

    Lead affects the body in many ways.

    CHECKING YOUR FAMILY FOR LEAD Get your children tested if you think your home has high levels of lead.

    A simple blood test can detect high levels of lead. Blood tests are important for:

    • Children who are 6 months to 1 year old (6 months if you live in an older home that might have lead in the paint).
    • Family members that you think might have high levels of lead.

    If your child is older than 1 year, talk to your doctor about whether your child needs testing.

    Your doctor or health center can do blood tests. They are inexpensive and sometimes free. Your doctor will explain what the test results mean. Treatment can range from changes in your diet to medication or a hospital stay.


    In general, the older your home, the more likely it has lead-based paint.

    Many homes built before 1978 have lead-based paint. In 1978, the federal government banned lead-based paint from housing. Lead can be found:

    • In homes in the city, country, or suburbs.
    • In apartments, single-family homes, and both private and public housing.
    • Inside and outside of the house.
    • In soil around a home. (Soil can pick up lead from exterior paint, or other sources such as past use of leaded gas in cars.)


    Lead from paint chips, which you can see, and lead dust, which you can’t always see, can both be serious hazards.

    Lead-based paint that is in good condition is usually not a hazard.

    Peeling, chipping, chalking, or cracking lead-based paint is a hazard and needs immediate attention.

    Lead-based paint may also be a hazard when found on surfaces that children can chew or that get a lot of wear-and-tear. These areas include:

    • Windows and window sills.
    • Doors and door frames.
    • Stairs, railings, and banisters.
    • Porches and fences.

    Lead dust can form when lead-based paint is dry scraped, dry sanded, or heated. Dust also forms when painted surfaces bump or rub together. Lead chips and dust can get on surfaces and objects that people touch. Settled lead dust can reenter the air when people vacuum, sweep, or walk through it.

    Lead in soil can be a hazard when children play in bare soil or when people bring soil into the house on their shoes. Call your state agency (see below) to find out about soil testing for lead.


    Just knowing that a home has lead-based paint may not tell you if there is a hazard.

    You can get your home checked for lead hazards in one of two ways, or both:

    • A paint inspection tells you the lead content of every painted surface in your home. It won’t tell you whether the paint is a hazard or how you should deal with it.
    • A risk assessment tells you if there are any sources of serious lead exposure (such as peeling paint and lead dust). It also tells you what actions to take to address these hazards.

    Have qualified professionals do the work. The federal government is writing standards for inspectors and risk assessors. Some states might already have standards in place. Call your state agency for help with locating qualified professionals in your area (see below).

    Trained professionals use a range of methods when checking your home, including:

    • Visual inspection of paint condition and location.
    • Lab tests of paint samples.
    • Surface dust tests.
    • A portable x-ray fluorescence machine.

    Home test kits for lead are available, but the federal government is still testing their reliability. These tests should not be the only method used before doing renovations or to assure safety.


    If you suspect that your house has lead hazards, you can take some immediate steps to reduce your family’s risk:

    • If you rent, notify your landlord of peeling or chipping paint.
    • Clean up paint chips immediately.
    • Clean floors, window frames, window sills, and other surfaces weekly. Use a mop or sponge with warm water and a general all-purpose cleaner or a cleaner made specifically for lead. REMEMBER: NEVER MIX AMMONIA AND BLEACH PRODUCTS TOGETHER SINCE THEY CAN FORM A DANGEROUS GAS.
    • Thoroughly rinse sponges and mop heads after cleaning dirty or dusty areas.
    • Wash children’s hands often, especially before they eat and before nap time and bed time.
    • Keep play areas clean. Wash bottles, pacifiers, toys, and stuffed animals regularly.
    • Keep children from chewing window sills or other painted surfaces.
    • Clean or remove shoes before entering your home to avoid tracking in lead from soil.
    • Make sure children eat nutritious, low-fat meals high in iron and calcium, such as spinach and low-fat dairy products. Children with good diets absorb less lead.


    Removing lead improperly can increase the hazard to your family by spreading even more lead dust around the house.

    Always use a professional who is trained to remove lead hazards safely.

    In addition to day-to-day cleaning and good nutrition:

    • You can temporarily reduce lead hazards by taking actions like repairing damaged painted surfaces and planting grass to cover soil with high lead levels. These actions (called “interim controls”) are not permanent solutions and will not eliminate all risks of exposure.
    • To permanently remove lead hazards, you must hire a lead “abatement” contractor. Abatement (or permanent hazard elimination) methods include removing, sealing, or enclosing lead-based paint with special materials. Just painting over the hazard with regular paint is not enough.

    Always hire a person with special training for correcting lead problems–someone who knows how to do this work safely and has the proper equipment to clean up thoroughly. If possible, hire a certified lead abatement contractor. Certified contractors will employ qualified workers and follow strict safety rules as set by their state or by the federal government.

    Call your state agency (see below) for help with locating qualified contractors in your area and to see if financial assistance is available.


    If not conducted properly, certain types of renovations can release lead from paint and dust into the air.

    Take precautions before you begin remodeling or renovations that disturb painted surfaces (such as scraping off paint or tearing out walls):

    • Have the area tested for lead-based paint.
    • Do not use a dry scraper, belt-sander, propane torch, or heat gun to remove lead-based paint. These actions create large amounts of lead dust and fumes. Lead dust can remain in your home long after the work is done.
    • Temporarily move your family (especially children and pregnant women) out of the apartment or house until the work is done and the area is properly cleaned. If you can’t move your family, at least completely seal off the work area.
    • Follow other safety measures to reduce lead hazards. You can find out about other safety measures by calling 1-800-424-LEAD. Ask for the brochure “Reducing Lead Hazards When Remodeling Your Home.” This brochure explains what to do before, during, and after renovations.

    If you have already completed renovations or remodeling that could have released lead-based paint or dust, get your young children tested and follow the steps outlined above.


    While paint, dust, and soil are the most common lead hazards, other lead sources also exist.

    • Drinking water — Your home might have plumbing with lead or lead solder. Call your local health department or water supplier to find out about testing your water. You cannot see, smell, or taste lead, and boiling your water will not get rid of lead. If you think your plumbing might have lead in it:

      Use only cold water for drinking and cooking.

      Run water for 15 to 30 seconds before drinking it, especially if you have not used your water for a few hours.

    • The job — If you work with lead, you could bring it home on your hands or clothes. Shower and change clothes before coming home. Launder your clothes separately from the rest of your family’s.
    • Old painted toys and furniture.
    • Food and liquids stored in lead crystal or lead-glazed pottery or porcelain.
    • Lead smelters or other industries that release lead into the air.
    • Hobbies that use lead, such as making pottery or stained glass, or refinishing furniture.
    • Folk remedies that contain lead, such as “greta” and “azarcon” used to treat an upset stomach.


    The National Lead Information Center

    Call 1-800-LEAD-FYI to learn how to protect children from lead poisoning.

    For other information on lead hazards, call the center’s clearinghouse at 1-800-424-LEAD. For the hearing impaired, call, TDD 1-800-526-5456 (FAX: 202-659-1192, Internet: EHC@CAIS.COM).

    EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline

    Call 1-800-426-4791 for information about lead in drinking water.

    Consumer Product Safety Commission Hotline

    To request information on lead in consumer products, or to report an unsafe consumer product or a product-related injury call 1-800-638-2772. (Internet: For the hearing impaired, call TDD 1-800-638-8270.


    Some cities and states have their own rules for lead-based paint activities. Check with your state agency (listed below) to see if state or local laws apply to you. Most state agencies can also provide information on finding a lead abatement firm in your area, and on possible sources of financial aid for reducing lead hazards.

    State/Region Phone Number
    Alabama (205) 242-5661
    Alaska (907) 465-5152
    Arkansas 501) 661-2534
    Arizona (602) 542-7307
    California (510) 450-2424
    Colorado (303) 692-3012
    Connecticut (203) 566-5808
    Washington, DC (202) 727-9850
    Delaware (302) 739-4735
    Florida (904) 488-3385
    Georgia (404) 657-6514
    Hawaii (808) 832-5860
    Idaho (208) 332-5544
    Illinois (800) 545-2200
    Indiana (317) 382-6662
    Iowa (800) 972-2026
    Kansas (913) 296-0189
    Kentucky (502) 564-2154
    Louisiana (504) 765-0219
    Massachusetts (800) 532-9571
    Maryland (410) 631-3859
    Maine (207) 287-4311
    Michigan (517) 335-8885
    Minnesota (612) 627-5498
    Mississippi (601) 960-7463
    Missouri (314) 526-4911
    Montana (406) 444-3671
    Nebraska (205) 242-5661
    Nevada (702) 687-6615
    New Hampshire (603) 271-4507
    New Jersey (609) 633-2043
    New York (800) 458-1158
    New Mexico (505) 841-8024
    North Carolina (919) 715-3293
    North Dakota (701) 328-5188
    Ohio (614) 466-1450
    Oklahoma (405) 271-5220
    Oregon (503) 248-5240
    Pennsylvania (717) 782-2884
    Rhode Island (401) 277-3424
    South Carolina (803) 935-7945
    South Dakota (605) 773-3153
    Tennessee (615) 741-5683
    Texas (512) 834-6600
    Utah (801) 536-4000
    Vermont (802) 863-7231
    Virginia (505) 841-8024
    Washington (206) 753-2556
    West Virginia (304) 558-2981
    Wisconsin (608) 266-5885
    Wyoming (307) 777-7391


    Your Regional EPA Office can provide further information regarding regulations and lead protection programs.

    EPA Regional Offices

    Region 1 (Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont)
    John F. Kennedy Federal Building
    One Congress Street
    Boston, MA 02203
    (617) 565-3420

    Region 2 (New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands)
    Building 5
    2890 Woodbridge Avenue
    Edison, NJ 08837-3679
    (908) 321-6671

    Region 3 (Delaware, Washington DC, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia)
    841 Chestnut Building
    Philadelphia, PA 19107
    (215) 597-9800

    Region 4 (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee)
    345 Courtland Street, NE
    Atlanta, GA 30365
    (404) 347-4727

    Region 5 (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin)
    77 West Jackson Boulevard
    Chicago, IL 60604-3590
    (312) 886-6003

    Region 6 (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas)
    First Interstate Bank Tower
    1445 Ross Avenue, 12th Floor, Suite 1200
    Dallas, TX 75202-2733
    (214) 665-7244

    Region 7 (Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska)
    726 Minnesota Avenue
    Kansas City, KS 66101
    (913) 551-7020

    Region 8 (Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming)
    999 18th Street, Suite 500
    Denver, CO 80202-2405
    (303) 293-1603

    Region 9 (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada)
    75 Hawthorne Street
    San Francisco, CA 94105
    (415) 744-1124

    Region 10 (Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Alaska)
    1200 Sixth Avenue
    Seattle, WA 98101
    (206) 553-1200


    U.S. CPSC Eastern Regional Center
    201 Varick Street, Room 903
    New York, NY 10014-4811
    Tele. (212) 620-4120
    Fax: (212) 620-5388

    U.S. CPSC Central Regional Center
    230 South Dearborn Street, Room 2944
    Chicago, IL 60604-1601
    (312) 353-8260

    U.S. CPSC Western Regional Center
    1301 Clay Street, Suite 610 N
    Oakland, CA 94612
    Tele. (510) 637-4050
    Fax: (510) 637-4060

    Information provided in this booklet is based upon current scientific and technical understanding of the issues presented and is reflective of the jurisdictional boundaries established by the statutes governing the co-authoring agencies. Following the advice given will not necessarily provide complete protection in all situations or against all health hazards that can be caused by lead exposure.

    The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission protects the public from the unreasonable risk of injury or death from 15,000 types of consumer products under the agency’s jurisdiction. To report a dangerous product or a product-related injury, you can go to CPSC’s forms page and use the first on-line form on that page. Or, you can call CPSC’s hotline at (800) 638-2772 or CPSC’s teletypewriter at (800) 638-8270, or send the information to Consumers can obtain this publication and additional publication information from the Publications section of CPSC’s web site or by sending your publication request to If you would like to receive CPSC’s recall notices, subscribing to the email list will send all press releases to you the day they are issued.

    This document is in the public domain. It may be reproduced without change in part or whole by an individual or organization without permission. If it is reproduced, however, the Commission would appreciate knowing how it is used. Write the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Office of Information and Public Affairs, Washington, D.C. 20207 or send an e-mail to